Geometric patterning has been used throughout history – from Islamic and Hindu temples to medieval manuscripts and Masonic heralds – to signify spiritual power. In the past, this power, and how it has been represented in art, was often appropriated for political means through the relationships between church and state. In modern times, religion became less important and political ideologies became affiliated with art that represented progressive values. In Russia, the Constructivists were associated with communism because their abstract designs envisioned an art for the people. This movement is an important reference point for Preiss. His work engages with the history of abstraction and patterning as a utopian ideal. Preiss describes his compositions as “symbolic archetypes”, which means he considers his paintings as a “universal language” that can be enjoyed by people from all cultures and backgrounds.