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Education - Alte Pinakothek

The History of the Alte Pinakothek

The basis for the current collection of the Alte Pinakothek is established: Duke Wilhelm IV of Bavaria (1493-1550) and his wife Jacobaea of Baden commission a series of history paintings for the Munich Residence. Numerous painters from key South German art centers participate: including Albrecht Altdorfer from Regensburg , Barthel Beham from Nuremberg , Jörg Breu and Hans Burkmair from Augsburg and from Munich Abraham Schöpfer, Hans Schöpfer and Ludwig Refinger. The subject matter of the works is taken from a range of events from Ancient Greek and Roman, as well as Hebrew and Early Christian history. The most well-know work of the series is Altdorfer's "The Battle of Issus".

Construction of the Kunstkammer (later the "Mint") by Wilhelm Egckl during the reign of Duke Albrecht V. Curiosities of nature as well as art objects are displayed. An inventory drawn up in 1598 lists, among other works, 778 paintings.

The Prince Elector Maximilian I (1573-1651) acquires major Old German paintings, including Albrect Dürer's "The Four Apostles;" the works were exhibited in the Kammergalerie, established between 1611-17. The Elector commissions a hunting cycle from Peter Paul Rubens from the (Old) Schleissheim Castle in 1615-16; only the "Hippopotamus Hunt" is still in Munich . Around the same time, another Wittelsbacher, Wolfgang Wilhelm, Palatine Count of Neuburg, Jülich and Berg (1578-1653), commissions Rubens to paint, among other works, the altarpiece for the high altar of the Jesuit church in Neuburg on the Danube, "The Large Last Judgement," which was to later come to Munich via Düsseldorf.

The Prince Elector Maximilian II Emanuel (1662-1726) continues his grandfather's collecting activities. In 1698, while Standhol de r in the Netherlands , he acquires 101 Flemish paintings from a collection owned by the Antwerp merchant Gisbert van Colen; among these paintings are 12 Rubens works, which today belong to the most important works in the Alte Pinakothek. Over 1000 paintings are exhibited in the new Schleissheim Castle . At around the same time, Prince Elector Johann Wilhelm of Palitinate-Neuburg (1658-1716), a grandson of Wolfgang Wilhelm, accumulates a fine collection of Flemish and Italian masterworks at his royal seat in Düsseldorf; these paintings will later also come to Munich.

The Bavarian Wittelsbacher line dies out. Elector Prince Karl Theodor of the Palitinate (1724-1799) inherits the entire Bavarian and Palatinate bequest.

Karl Theodor commissions the Hofgartengalerie, built above the northern Hofgarten Maximilian arca de s (1613-17). Fearful of approaching French soldiers, the Elector has 758 paintings moved from the Mannheim Gallery to Munich ; most of the works are 17 th century Dutch and Flemish paintings, including important works by Jan Brueghel the El de r and Rembrandt's "Sacrifice of Isaac."

The de ath of Karl Theodor heralds the end of the Palatinate line. Prince Elector Maximilian IV Joseph (1756-1825, from 1806 King Max I Joseph) of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken line incorporates works from his Zweibrücken gallery into the Munich collection immediately after coming to power. These comprise approximately 2000 works of Old German, Flemish, Dutch and recent French painters, including Chardin's "Woman Peeling Turnips" and Boucher's "Reclining Girl".

From 1802
During the period of secularization, approximately 1500 paintings revert to state property, among them important Old German altarpieces and major Baroque paintings. Parallel to this, the de centralization of the art collection begins and the first associated galleries are established: Augsburg , Ansbach, Bamberg , Würzburg, Nuremberg and Aschaffenburg ; several of the conceptually adapted galleries still exist today.

From 1805
The Crown Prince (later King) Ludwig I (1786-1868) acquires numerous Italian paintings, including works from Giotto, Botticelli, Filippino Lippi , Domenico Ghirlandaio, Perugino and Raphael. Up until the inauguration of the Alte Pinakothek in 1836, Ludwig was to amass 97 from 314 paintings for the Italian section, almost all of which are major works.

The Dusseldorf Gallery belonging to Johann Wilhelm of the Palatinate, already bequeathed to Karl Theodor in 1777, is transferred to Munich.

On April 7 th , Raphael's birthday, the cornerstone of the (Alte) Pinakothek is laid. ( Architect : Leo von Klenze).

King Ludwig I buys 216 paintings from the Boisserée Collection for 240,000 guil de rs: works from the Cologne School, among them from the Master of the Life of the Virgin and from Stefan Lochner, as well as major works of Early Netherlandish painting, including van de r Wey de n's "Columba Altar, Dieric Bouts' "The Pearl of Brabant" and Hans Memling's "The Seven Joys of the Virgin" come to Munich.

The following year, King Ludwig I acquires 219 Old German Master paintings of the Swabian, Franconian, Central and Southern German schools from the Oettingen-Wallerstein Collection for 80,000 guil de rs. Among these works are Dürer's portrait of "Oswolt Kreul" and Altdorfer's "Danube Landscape."

Inauguration of the (Alte) Pinakothek.

The first catalogue of paintings is published (Author: Johann Georg von Dillis).

The Alte Pinakothek is closed during the war. The paintings are stored at first in Munich and then, in 1942, moved out of the city, which helped keep losses at a minimum. Bombing raids on March 9, 1943 as well as on April 25 th , July 12 th and 16 th and December 17 th severely damage the building.

Paintings from the Alte Pinakothek and the then Neue Staatsgalerie (which today corresponds to the more recent inventory of paintings starting 1850 in the Neue Pinakothek) are exhibited in Haus de r Kunst.

The Alte Pinakothek is rebuilt by Hans Döllgast. Traces of war de struction are left visible on the outsi de walls. These, as well as the ample staircase on the south si de – there was a large loggia in the upper storey; the main entrance was originally located in the east wing – are now classified as protected historical monuments.

On June 7 th the Alte Pinakothek is re-opened. In 1961 the east lower floor was opened and was followed by the west lower floor in 1963.

From 1966
Loaned 18th century paintings from the Bayerische Hypotheken- und Wechselbank are integrated into the collection, including, among other works, Lancret's "The Bird Cage" and Boucher's "Madame Pompadour."

Acquisition of Dieric Bout's "Ecce Agnus de i."

Closing of the museum for general renovation. A selection of masterpieces are hung in the Neue Pinakothek.

The Alte Pinakothek is reopened on July 23 rd

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